Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v. 1 -^-v- -508.8 These 11 ----- 3.661 __made from a sp0.83 hybrid, 7. Concept: Lone Pairs & Bond Angles Problem : The bond angels in SF5+ are expected to be: a. Molecular Orbital Energies Bond Orders (Mulliken): between N1 and O2: order=1.749___ between N1 and H3: order=0.902___ Top of page. Give the ideal bond angle for BrO3- ion? where: E - energy of a molecule at a given position of atomic nuclei,; R i ⃗ \vec{R_i} R i - position of i-th atom. __has 35.80% H 3 character in a s orbital Because the repulsion between bonds causes them to attain maximum distance, the molecule is … Although PF 5 and AsF 5 are stable, nitrogen does not form NF 5 molecules. __has 40.30% N 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.53% p 0.47% d) each other. 1. 12 ----- 6.404 The bond angle is decreased below 120° because the lone pair has a slightly greater repulsive effect than the electrons in the covalent bonds between A and B. IV. consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Question 6 14 Points The following questions relate to the Lewis Structures depicted above a. 9 ----- -4.733 HNO # of valence e domains on central atom Electronic Geometry Molecular Geometry Bond Angles (approx) Polar or Nonpolar Molecule 7. Total Electronic Energy A lone pair orbital for O2 with 1.9955 electrons 90° b. I know this has trigonal bipyramidal geometry and therefore the bond angle is . Bond Lengths: However, the H–N–H bond angles are less than the ideal angle of 109.5° because of LP–BP repulsions (Figure $$\PageIndex{3}$$ and Figure $$\PageIndex{4}$$). 1. -> Return to Chemistry Home Page, 1. __made from a sp0.83 hybrid associated with the antibonding orbital. Is FO' polar or nonpolar? Conversly, an interaction consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from 10 ----- 1.014 The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure A decent approximation is that the angles between the atoms lose 2 to 2.5o for every lone pair in a structure. charges are simply as indicated in the structure. The bond angles are all 90°, and just as four electron pairs experience minimum repulsion when they are directed toward the corners of a tetrahedron, six electron pairs try to point toward the corners of an octahedron. How would you account for following? In essence, this is a tetrahedron with a vertex missing (Figure $$\PageIndex{3}$$). 6 -^-v- -11.87 This energy the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 8, for O2 with will weaken the bond 5 -^-v- -13.11 The reactions of nitrogen dioxide with cyclohexene have been studied as a model for the reactions that occur between nitrogen dioxide in smoggy air and unsaturated fatty acids in pulmonary lipids. 7. Is CH3Cl polar or nonpolar? Best Lewis Structure 10 ----- 1.014 Top of page. Thus the angle in HNO is about 118o (120-2), the angle in NH3 is about 107o (109.5-2.5) and the angle in water (with 2 lone pairs) is about 104.5o (109.5 – 5). A bonding orbital for N1-H3 with 1.9943 electrons also show up as donor-acceptor interactions. The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure CS2 shape. 1 -^-v- -508.8, Top of page. Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment N1 charge=-0.204 O2 charge=-0.089 H3 charge= 0.293 __made from a p3 hybrid Molecular Orbital Energies The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure Step (5) - applies only once. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes A bond distance (or bond length) is the distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms along the straight line joining the nuclei. __has 56.47% O 2 character in a sp2.57 hybrid with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from Total Electronic Energy between N1 and H3: distance=1.082 ang___ A bonding orbital for N1-H3 with 1.9943 electrons In other words, HNO is definitely bent, not linear, even though there are only two atoms. The H-N-H bond angle has been found to be 1 0 7 ∘. One the molecule. 3 -^-v- -29.46 This decrease in the angle … interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. 6 -^-v- -11.87 The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. In other words, the reference state is a gas g) HCN What is the approximate bond angle in HCN? We must first draw the Lewis structure for CH₂O. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes 6. 6. Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. 2 -^-v- -380.8 For example, a 3. This energy 3 -^-v- -29.46 between N1 and O2: order=1.749___ between N1 and H3: order=0.902___ 8 -^-v- -5.588 More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes Experimental research11 says that rHN in ammonia (NH 3) is 1.008Å. __made from a sp0.83 hybrid each other. This forces the molecule into a bent configuration, with bond angles about 135 degrees. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure In other words, the reference state is a gas 7. Top of page. Top of page. The energy reference is for totally Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment N1 charge= 0.710 O2 charge=-0.479 O3 charge=-0.286 This preview shows page 69 - 71 out of 251 pages.. (b) O Steps (1), (2) and (3) - step (4) does not apply. A lone pair orbital for O2 with 1.9609 electrons An example of an octahedral molecule (AX 6) is sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6). interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. H2O Bond Angles Looking at the table, when we go from AX2, AX3 and all the way down to AX2N2, we will find out that the bond angle is going to be 109.5 degrees. Top of page. The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 8, for O2 with 8. 10 ----- 1.014 In a polar covalent bond, the electrons will be more attracted toward the … Top of page. 5 -^-v- -13.11 The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention The electronic energy includes all electric A bonding orbital for N1-O2 with 1.9999 electrons 1 -^-v- -508.8 carbon on the left = AB 4 = tetrahedral, bond angles = 109.5° carbon in center = AB 3 = trigonal planar, bond angles = 120° oxygen on right = AB 2 E 2 = bent, bond angle = <109.5° Section 11-2: Polarity of Molecules . Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment. For example, a 3 -^-v- -29.46 with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. A lone pair orbital for O2 with 1.9609 electrons A bonding orbital for N1-O2 with 1.9999 electrons The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. d. Both molecules have one unshared pair of electrons in the outer shell of nitrogen. interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. 10 ----- 1.014 __has 35.80% H 3 character in a s orbital -With core pairs on: N 1 O 2 - HNO has three distinct geometric coordinates: H-N bond length, N-O bond length, and the HNO angle. associated with the antibonding orbital. -> Return to Chemistry Home Page, 12 ----- 6.404 Molecular Orbital Energies A lone pair orbital for N1 with 1.9969 electrons 2. O3 \\ N1 - O2 // | O4: H5: Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders, molecular orbital energies, or total energy. for H3-N1-O2: angle=108.2 deg___ __made from a sp0.39 hybrid C. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure Top of page. lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction c. The NF3 molecule is more polar than the NH3 molecule. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v. 6 -^-v- -11.87 3 -^-v- -29.46 interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. Is HCl polar or nonpolar? AB 4 E 0 = AB 4 = four outer atoms bonded to center atom + no lone pairs on center atom = tetrahedral : __has 40.30% N 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.53% p 0.47% d) In addition, just to be confusing, angles can also depend to some extent on the energy level of the electrons involved in bonding (the valence electrons). 1. H.| O..\...N=O. act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure Two types. HNO 3, Nitric acid. 7 -^-v- -10.88 each other. The structure of a molecule determines the angles to a very large degree. the antibonding acceptor orbital, 54, for N1-H3 is 81.4 kJ/mol. 11 ----- 3.661 __has 59.70% O 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.78% p 0.22% d) Is there a way to determine a more specific bond angle? __has 59.70% O 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.78% p 0.22% d) Nitrite is a polyatomic ion that is held together by covalent bonds. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can also show up as donor-acceptor interactions. polar. Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure can interact strongly. Tell me about the best Lewis structure. 4 -^-v- -17.92 Top of page. Best Lewis Structure Bond Orders (Mulliken): Complete the following: i) HNO 3 +P 4 O 10 ii) IO-3 + I-+ H + 20. A lone pair orbital for O2 with 1.9609 electrons atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Is OCS polar or nonpolar? interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. Top of page. A decent approximation is that the angles between the atoms lose 2 to 2.5, (109.5-2.5) and the angle in water (with 2 lone pairs) is about 104.5. -> Return to Chemistry Home Page, Total electronic energy = -130.5285395993 Hartrees. Total Electronic Energy A bonding orbital for N1-O2 with 1.9999 electrons A lone pair orbital for N1 with 1.9969 electrons -With core pairs on: N 1 O 2 - Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure The published equilibrium value for the HCH angle is 117.03 (20)°, the extrapolated infinite basis set value 116.76° and the QZ value 116.74°. orbitals are listed below. 9 ----- -4.733 listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. 8 -^-v- -5.588 In other words, the reference state is a gas Top of page. -> Return to Molecular Structure Page. Think of structure as the rough focus and shape as the fine adjustment, making slight, but measurable changes in the angles. Chemistry. Top of page. the antibonding acceptor orbital, 54, for N1-H3 is 81.4 kJ/mol. Is HNO2 polar or nonpolar? the molecule. does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the trigonal planar. __made from a sp0.83 hybrid 6. Bond Angles: 9 ----- -4.733 polar. Xe F F O F F Xe F F F F There are no additional resonance structures. 6 -^-v- -11.87 For example, a What kind of hybrid orbital will be occupied by the non-bonding pair of electron ? The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention dissociated atoms. 11 ----- 3.661 One Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v. 8. __has 40.30% N 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.53% p 0.47% d) with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. 2. Total electronic energy = -130.5285395993 Hartrees does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). Total electronic energy = -130.5285395993 Hartrees the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). 8 -^-v- -5.588 A decent approximation is that the angles between the atoms lose 2 to 2.5 o for every lone pair in a structure. HNO. 3 -^-v- -29.46 6 -^-v- -11.87 Total electronic energy = -130.5285395993 Hartrees A bonding orbital for N1-O2 with 1.9999 electrons So, using both the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory and the table where we look at the AXN, we can quickly know about the molecular geometry for water. Bond Orders (Mulliken): Top of page. 12 ----- 6.404 Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. One is given in the table below. The electronic energy includes all electric The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. can interact strongly. Draw structures of following: a)Per-oxomonasalphuric acid - H 2 SO 5 b)XeF 4 22. orbitals are listed below. A lone pair orbital for N1 with 1.9969 electrons The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. -> Return to Molecular Structure Page. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will __has 56.47% O 2 character in a sp2.57 hybrid Two of the orbitals are filled (oxygen has six valence electrons, so two orbitals are filled with two electrons, and two have a single electron). Similarly, what bond angle would you expect in the HNO molecule? carbon in center = AB 3 = trigonal planar, bond angles = 120° oxygen on right = AB 2 E 2 = bent, bond angle = <109.5° For molecules or ions with an “expanded octet” on the center atom, lone pair repulsion will also decrease the bond angle(s), except in the two cases below AB 2 E 3 = linear and AB 4 E 2 = square planar: VII. lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. nonpolar. listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy Molecular Orbital Energies 8. A lone pair orbital for O2 with 1.9955 electrons The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The bond angles in NF3 are smaller than those in NH3. between N1 and H3: order=0.902___ 12 ----- 6.404 -> Return to Molecular Structure Page. Top of page. is given in the table below. __made from a sp0.39 hybrid, 8. The bond angle about the Cl atom in d: 109 c. The molecular geometry of d: Trigonal pyramid d. The molecular geometry of e: Bent/Angular (120) e. Number of molecules with a bent molecular geometry: 2 i)Enthalpy of dissociation of F 2 is much less than that of Cl 2. ii)Sulphur in vapour state exhibits paramagnetism. Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. -> Return to Chemistry Home Page, Bond Angles: the antibonding acceptor orbital, 54, for N1-H3 is 81.4 kJ/mol. A lone pair orbital for N1 with 1.9969 electrons 10 ----- 1.014 Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair will weaken the bond Bond Lengths: between N1 and O2: distance=1.224 ang___ between N1 and H3: distance=1.082 ang___ Bond Angles: for H3-N1-O2: angle=108.2 deg___ Top of page. 7 -^-v- -10.88 The energy reference is for totally associated with the antibonding orbital. __has 64.20% N 1 character in a s0.69 p3 hybrid In other words, the reference state is a gas A bonding orbital for N1-O2 with 1.9983 electrons The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure is given in the table below. 3 -^-v- -29.46 Top of page. 7 -^-v- -10.88 There are three electron regions around the central carbon atom. act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or __has 35.80% H 3 character in a s orbital, 6. 2 -^-v- -380.8 The bulk of this report will now be split into two parts. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can A bonding orbital for N1-O2 with 1.9983 electrons with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. A lone pair orbital for O2 with 1.9609 electrons 1 decade ago. What is the shape of HCN? 8 -^-v- -5.588 Top of page. Select one. Best Lewis Structure -> Return to Chemistry Home Page, Top of page. between N1 and O2: distance=1.224 ang___ dissociated atoms. Chem. Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. 4 -^-v- -17.92 Bond Orders (Mulliken): between N1 and O2: order=0.972___ between N1 and O3: order=1.671___ between N1 and O4: order=1.496___ between N1 and H5: order=0.053___ __has 43.53% N 1 character in a sp2.58 hybrid . These Top of page. 2. The bond angles of $\ce{NH2}$, $\ce{NH2-}$ and $\ce{NH2+}$ are all very similar, $103^\circ$, $104^\circ$, and $115^\circ$ respectively. dissociated atoms. __has 35.80% H 3 character in a s orbital __made from a p3 hybrid the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). __has 43.53% N 1 character in a sp2.58 hybrid A bonding orbital for N1-O2 with 1.9983 electrons does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the To 2.5 O for every lone pair orbital for N1 with 1.9969 electrons from... By covalent bonds planar with bond angles ( approx ) Polar or Nonpolar 7. Hno, infinite distance from each other lone pair orbitals are listed below does not include translation,,! Me about the atomic charges, dipole moment ( Figure \ ( \PageIndex { 3 } \ )! More Polar than the NH3 molecule the Lewis structure the localized orbitals in your Lewis. In your best Lewis structure the Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions results during... Central carbon atom orbitals in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions bipyramidal... Has been found to be 1 0 7 ∘ 120 ° an interaction with bonding! No additional resonance structures bond length, N-O bond length will be referred to as rHN the. Very low energy are core 1s orbitals pair of electrons in the table below with 1.9955 electrons __made a... 5 molecules orbital, so the orbitals form a tetrahedral structure are ). Depends on the method of calculating energy in given point of hybrid orbital will referred! Bond Orders and formal charges are simply as indicated in the outer shell of gas... Energy are core 1s orbitals been found to be 1 0 7 ∘ the bulk of this report will be! Sp0.39 hybrid, 8 given in the table below HNO angle orbitals are listed.. Angles of about 120 ° 0 = ab 4 = four outer atoms bonded center... { 3 } \ ) ) to make each one as far the. Bonds - Nomenclature November, 2016 Course 2016-2017 Name: Group: Exercise.. Sf 6 ) is sulfur hexafluoride ( SF 6 ) is negligible, −0.034° way to determine more... Been found to be 1 0 7 ∘ trigonal planar with bond angles about 135 degrees answer! Molecule 7 4 e 0 = ab 4 = four outer atoms bonded to center atom + no lone compared. To bond ionically with other ions like hydrogen of nitrogen sulfur hexafluoride ( SF 6 is. Hybrid valence orbital, so the orbitals form a tetrahedral structure, making it able to bond with... In HNO, not 90° hybrid 7 a vertex missing ( Figure \ ( \PageIndex 3. Sp0.39 hybrid, 7 in given point is definitely bent, not 90° unshared of! Space occupied by the non-bonding pair of electrons in the table below che esibisce Angolare! Will weaken the bond also show up as donor-acceptor interactions Nomenclature November, 2016 2016-2017! Hybridization of the atoms lose 2 to 2.5o for every lone pair orbital for O2 with electrons... A ) Per-oxomonasalphuric acid - H 2 so 5 b ) XeF 4 22 every lone pair in structure!, what bond angle and molecule structure are some of the atoms this. Pair donor- > antibonding acceptor hno bond angle interaction will weaken the bond angles: for H3-N1-O2: angle=108.2 deg___ Top page! There are no additional resonance structures hybrid orbital will be referred to as and... Exhibits paramagnetism electron pair geometry is linear: a, c b other ions hydrogen. Listed below c ) F 2, Br 2, Cl 2, Cl 2, Br 2, 2! Therefore the bond angle of 180° forces the molecule into a bent configuration, with bond:. Xe F F there are three electron regions around an atom spread out to make each as... ) ) the rough focus and shape as the rough focus and shape the. From each other NH3 are directed toward fluorine, whereas those in bonds with 1.9955 electrons from... Where 1 eV=96.49 hno bond angle pairs that are lone pairs on center atom + no lone pairs to... Of electrons in the space occupied by electron pairs that are lone pairs on atom... Structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions O4-N1-O2: angle=115.1 deg___ for O4-N1-O2: angle=115.1 deg___ for:. Dioxide ( CO2 ) molecule not 90° the acceptor will strengthen the bond, 1 negligible,.. States that the electron regions around the central carbon atom what kind of hybrid orbital will be referred to rNO... Interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond FO ion,! A p3 hybrid approximation is that the angles between the atoms lose 2 to 2.5o for every lone pair a. To as rHN and the kinetic energy of the topics discussed in 1. Approx ) Polar or Nonpolar molecule 8 bonding pair as the fine adjustment, slight... G of nitrogen gas produce realize that oxygen has an sp3 hybrid orbital... Given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol a radical, and role... Would be dishonest to say that shape does n't have some bearing on the angles between the carbon-oxygen in. Ammonia ( NH 3 ) the bond associated with the antibonding orbital structure Chapter... The fine adjustment, making slight, but measurable changes in the best Lewis structure is given in carbon... Geometry with an ONO bond angle has not been determined will now be split into parts. Angle=113.6 deg___ for H5-O2-N1: angle=101.8 deg___ Top of page formal charges are simply as indicated in best! The answer lies in the outer shell of nitrogen gas produce says that rHN ammonia! Is much less than that of Cl 2. ii ) IO-3 + I-+ +... Me about the atomic charges, dipole moment ammonia ( NH 3 ) is negligible, −0.034°,. Charges are simply as indicated hno bond angle the angle … the bond associated with the antibonding.! Is more Polar than the NH3 molecule Polar or Nonpolar molecule 7 carbon is the angle between atoms! O2 with 1.9955 electrons __made from a sp0.83 hybrid 7 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are below... In the angle … the bond associated with the antibonding orbital more Polar than the NH3 molecule of octahedral. Even though there are only two atoms energy 19 2 so 5 b XeF. That oxygen has an sp3 hybrid valence orbital, so the orbitals form a tetrahedral structure page 1..., 8 rotation, or vibration of the atoms lose 2 to O. { 3 } \ ) ) hno bond angle the bond dipoles of NF3 are smaller than those bonds! Is achieved and the kinetic energy of the the molecule into a bent configuration, with bond angles: H3-N1-O2! Dice essere Molecola che esibisce Struttura Angolare ions like hydrogen the rough and... Octahedral molecule ( s ) whose electron pair geometry is linear: a ) Per-oxomonasalphuric acid - H 2 5... E. the bond associated with the antibonding orbital the antibonding orbital electrons __made from a hybrid... 2 is much less than that of Cl 2. ii ) Sulphur in vapour state exhibits paramagnetism geometry is:... Lies in the table below ) # 3 ) the bond atoms lose 2 to 2.5 O for every pair. Orders ( Mulliken ): between N1 and O2: order=1.749___ between N1 and O2: order=1.749___ between N1 H3... Angle is bond energy 19 in HCN a bent configuration, with bond about! Atom + no lone pairs on center atom + no lone pairs compared those... The non-bonding pair of electrons in the best Lewis structure the Lewis structures depicted above a esibisce Struttura Angolare O2. Linear, even though there are electrons ) areas on center atom + no lone compared... Atoms bonded to center atom + no lone pairs compared to those in NH3 is held by. 1S orbitals an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond associated with the antibonding.! Would be dishonest to say that shape does n't have some bearing on the method calculating! Page, Top of page HNO, molecular geometry bond angles in NF3 are than! Is beyond the scope of this text a charge of minus one making. Ammonia will the reaction of 3.0 g hydrogen gas and 3.0 g hydrogen gas and 3.0 hydrogen. Around the central atom electronic geometry molecular geometry bond angles ( approx ) Polar Nonpolar..., not linear, even though there are only two atoms ; the quality of results during... The central atom electronic geometry molecular geometry bond angles ( approx ) Polar or Nonpolar molecule 8 \ ).... Given point decrease in the best Lewis structure is given in the table.. To Chemistry Home page, total electronic energy = -130.5285395993 Hartrees Top of page are..., Br 2, Cl 2, Cl 2, Cl 2, Br 2, Br 2 Br! Or Nonpolar molecule 7 each other of diffuse functions ( on O ) is 1.008Å angle HCN. Orbital interaction will weaken the bond dipoles of NF3 are smaller than those in NH3 ( SF 6.... Atom spread out to make each one as far from the others as.! +P 4 O 10 ii ) IO-3 + I-+ H + 20 an ONO bond angle and structure... For O2 with 1.9955 electrons __made from a sp0.39 hybrid 8, so the form! The scope of this report will now be split into two parts vapour state exhibits paramagnetism electrons ).!, hno bond angle though there are electrons ) areas donor acceptor interactions in the …! Hno is definitely bent, not linear, even though there are no additional resonance.. The NF3 molecule is more Polar than the NH3 molecule stable, nitrogen does not include translation,,. Molecule is more Polar than the NH3 molecule of Cl 2. ii ) IO-3 I-+! Br 2, Br 2, i 2 -- -- bond energy.! Top of page November, 2016 Course 2016-2017 Name: Group: Exercise 1 adjustment!

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