Nothing on this website should be considered as a substitute or replacement for professional legal advice. en On December 5, 1484, Pope Innocent VIII issued a papal bull, or document, that condemned witchcraft. Innocent, Bishop, Servant of the servants of God, for an eternal remembrance. ), that he himself shall announce, or by some other or others cause to be announced, the burthen if Our Bull, which he shall solemnly publish when and so often as he deems it necessary, or when he shall be requested so to do by the Inquisitors or by one of them. bull of pope innocent viii. tradiert. Innocentii "Inter multiplices nostrae sollicitudinis curas" contra impressores librorum reprobatorum.. jw2019. Please help support ... Pope Gregory VIII ordained him subdeacon, and Clement III created him Cardinal-Deacon of St. George in Velabro and Sts. Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 August 1484 to his death. Papal Bull Popes issued documents, known as papal bulls, in their administration of Church affairs. From this time onwards, the Pope would be England’s feudal overlord, receiving an annual tribute of 1000 marks (£666). The Triple Crown: An Account of the Papal Conclaves. en Papal bulls issued in 1493 gave secular authorities the moral justification they wanted for their campaign of conquest. Description. Papal Bull of Pope Innocent III Members may be interested in this Papal Bull, dated June 8, 1216, promulgated by Pope Innocent III (1160-1216). en Papal bullsissued in 1493 gave secular authorities the moral justification they wanted for their campaign of conquest. Innocent VIII: BULL Summis desiderantes, Dec. 5th, 1484 Bullarium Romanum (Taurinensis editio), sub, anno 1484. He is also remembered for issuing the papal bull Ad extirpanda, which authorized the use of torture by the Inquisition for eliciting confessions from heretics. (The following is quoted from the documentation by Paul Philemon Kies accompanying the papal bull, on file in Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections) “This bull was executed at Perugia (in Italy), where the great Pope died only thirty-eight days later (July 16, 1216). AKA Giovanni Battista Cibo. We therefore, desiring, as is our duty, to remove all impediments by which in any way the said inquisitors are hindered in the exercise of their office, and to prevent the taint of heretical pravity and of other like evils from spreading their infection to the ruin of others who are innocent, the zeal of religion especially impelling us, in order that the provinces, cities, dioceses, territories, and places aforesaid in the said parts of upper Germany may not be deprived of the office of inquisition which is their due, do hereby decree, by virtue of our apostolic authority, that it shall be permitted to the said inquisitors in these regions to exercise their office of inquisition and to proceed to the correction, imprisonment, and punishment of the aforesaid persons for their said offences and crimes, in all respects and altogether precisely as if the provinces, cities, territories, places, persons, and offences aforesaid were expressly named in the said letter. Frederick II also rallied to other European rulers to appeal Innocent IV’s decision by stating that if he could be deposed by a Pope, then perhaps one day the Pope … This Papal Bull, decreed by Pope Innocent VIII in 1484, addresses the presence of witchcraft in Germany and in other areas. The Bull opens by stating why the Pope believes that witches should be hung and that is that heretics and sin should be sought out and purged from Christian nations. signed a (genuine) bull, which promoted the persecution of witches. Under Innocent VIII. 3], Camden miscellany -- v. 1 [no. Latin text. Fearing that he would be threatened with papal support for a French invasion of England, in 1213 King John made peace with representatives of Pope Innocent III (1161–1216). Die medizinischen Umstände wurden oft legendär verstellt und bis ins 20. Other popes named Innocent Pope Innocent VIII(Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo(or Cibo), was head of the Catholic Churchand ruler of the Papal Statesfrom 29 August 1484 to his death. May 10, 2012 - 1484 The Witch-Bull of Pope Innocent VIII calls for an inquisition against witches/midwives authorizing subjects to do whatever necessary to get rid of them. Pre-Ecclesiastic Period. In 1473, with the support of Giuliano Della Rovere, later Pope Julius II, he was made cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded on 29 August 1484 as Pope Innocent VIII. Established the papal conclave as the method of selection for a pope, imposing progressively stricter restrictions on cardinals the longer a conclave lasted to encourage a quick selection. Jun 3, 2015 - During what is known as the Little Ice Age, the grip of freezing weather, failing of crops, rising crime, and mass starvation resulted in an increasing fear of witches. Innocentii "Inter multiplices nostrae sollicitudinis curas" contra impressores librorum reprobatorum.. Required fields are marked *, © 1484 - Pope Innocent VIII marked the beginning of the classical European witch-hunts with his papal bull Summis desiderantes Summis desiderantes affectibus , ( Latin for Desiring with supreme ardor ), sometimes abbreviated to Summis desiderantes [1] [2] was a papal bull regarding witchcraft issued by Pope Innocent VIII on December 5, 1484. Papal Bull dealing with the condemnation of Freemasonry Pope Clement XII - 1738 CLEMENT, BISHOP, Servant of the Servants of God to all the faithful, Salutation, and Apostolic Benediction. PRE-PAPAL BACKGROUND . The translation of this Bull is reprinted by permission from “The Geography of Witchcraft,” by Montague Summers, pp. Pope from 1484 to 1492. With signatures of the administration and chancery. 12 hours ago Anthony Davis, Kentavious Caldwell-Pope miss start against Bulls. Edition Notes Series The Camden miscellany -- v. 1 [no. Now you might be tempted into thinking that Innocent was guileless, gullible, or merely a product of his times… It was written by a scribe in the papal chancery, and is authenticated by the leaden bulla (seal) of the Pope. It has indeed lately come to Our ears, not without afflicting Us with bitter sorrow, that in some parts of Northern Germany, as well as in the provinces, townships, territories, districts, and dioceses of Mainz, Cologne, Tréves, Salzburg, and Bremen, many persons of both sexes, unmindful of their own salvation and straying from the Catholic Faith, have abandoned themselves to devils, incubi and succubi, and by their incantations, spells, conjurations, and other accursed charms and crafts, enormities and horrid offences, have slain infants yet in the mother’s womb, as also the offspring of cattle, have blasted the produce of the earth, the grapes of the vine, the fruits of the trees, nay, men and women, beasts of burthen, herd-beasts, as well as animals of other kinds, vineyards, orchards, meadows, pasture-land, corn, wheat, and all other cereals; these wretches furthermore afflict and torment men and women, beasts of burthen, herd-beasts, as well as animals of other kinds, with terrible and piteous pains and sore diseases, both internal and external; they hinder men from performing the sexual act and women from conceiving, whence husbands cannot know their wives nor wives receive their husbands; over and above this, they blasphemously renounce that Faith which is theirs by the Sacrament of Baptism, and at the instigation of the Enemy of Mankind they do not shrink from committing and perpetrating the foulest abominations and filthiest excesses to the deadly peril of their own souls, whereby they outrage the Divine Majesty and are a cause of scandal and danger to very many. Its primary object was to safeguard the personal interests of the electors. France replied with a statement of royal independence. Innocent VIII is often known for his papal bull against witchcraft and for appointing the infamous Torquemada as Grand Inquisitor of Spain. The Magna Carta, considered one of the most important documents of European history was a ground breaking attempt to hold a monarch within lawful bounds of authority. 3], Works of the Camden Society -- … Pamphili succeeded Pope Urban VIII (1623–44) on 15 September 1644 as Pope Innocent X, after a contentious papal conclave that featured a rivalry between French and Spanish factions. All Christians were required to assist the two Dominican monks, Jacob Sprenger and Heinrich Kramer, placed in charge of handling this supposed Witchcraft problem. Roman Catholic Pope, 1484-92. Innocent X was one of the most politically shrewd pontiffs of the era, greatly increasing the temporal power of … At the conclave of 1484, he signed, like all the other cardinals present, the election capitulation which was to bind the future pope. starb in Rom am 25. Innozenz VIII. The papal bull annulling Magna Carta was issued by Pope Innocent III (1161–1216) on 24 August 1215. The decree explicitly declares that Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger have papal authority to lead inquisitorial procedures against suspected witches and other heretics in Germany and other areas. In addition, Frederick II argued that since the papal bull was written without the knowledge and consent of the electoral princes, it was invalid. Portuguese Christopher Columbus sailed to the New World in August 1492, and he returned home in March 1493. On December 5th, 1484, Pope Innocent VIII issued an edict (Bull) entitled Summis desiderantes affectibusalleging that many men and women were in collusion with the Devil. In 1484 Pope Innocent VIII. Wherefore We, as is Our duty, being wholly desirous of removing all hindrances and obstacles by which the good work of the Inquisitors may be let and tarded, as also of applying potent remedies to prevent the disease of heresy and other turpitudes diffusing their poison to the destruction of many innocent souls, since Our zeal for the Faith especially incites us, lest that the provinces, townships, dioceses, districts, and territories of Germany, which We had specified, be deprived of the benefits of the Holy Office thereto assigned, by the tenor of these presents in virtue of Our Apostolic authority We decree and enjoin that the aforesaid Inquisitors be empowered to proceed to the just correction, imprisonment, and punishment of any persons, without let or hindrance, in every way as if the provinces, townships, dioceses, districts, territories, yea, even the persons and their crimes in this kind were named and particularly designated in Our letters. This edition published in 1847 by Printed for the Camden Society in . Son of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent his early years at the Neapolitan court. Contact Milo the Witch at contact00@teenwitch.com. Your email address will not be published. on the marriage of Henry VII. This Pape didn’t have Bulle to partage th world in both Spain and Portugal? This Papal Bull, decreed by Pope Innocent VIII in 1484, addresses the presence of witchcraft in Germany and in other areas. In this bull, we have the clearest statement and most sweeping claim of papal … Thks, Your email address will not be published. Summary: This is the Bull written by Pope Innocent VIII in 1484 that commissioned Kramer and Sprenger to write the Malleus Maleficarum. In 1215 Pope Innocent III, at the time, the most powerful man in Europe, invalidated the Magna Carta, calling the document a disgrace. Donated to Washington State College by the Friends of the Library in 1951. Pope Innocent III (1160 or 1161-1216) Manuscript on vellum, concerned with the rights of a religious order operating a leper house. Frederick II also rallied to other European rulers to appeal Innocent IV’s decision by stating that if he could be deposed by a Pope, then perhaps one day the Pope will turn against them. The Bull of Pope Innocent VIII approving the marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, the two issued by Julius II that granted the dispensation allowing Henry VIII … Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 August 1484 to his death. In a Bull of March, 1723, he regulated numerous abuses in Spain and was assisted in the execution of this Bull by King Philip V of Spain. The papal bull of Pope Innocent VIII known as Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484). During what is known as the Little Ice Age , the grip of freezing weather, failing of crops, rising crime, and mass starvation resulted in an increasing fear of witches. And, for the greater sureness, extending the said letter and deputation to the provinces, cities, dioceses, territories, places, persons, and crimes aforesaid, we grant to the said inquisitors that they or either of them joining with them our beloved son Johannes Gremper, cleric of the diocese of Coonstance, master of arts, their present notary, or any other notary public who by them or by either of them shall have been temporarily delegated in the provinces, cities, dioceses, territories, and places aforesaid, may exercise against all persons, of whatsoever condition and rank, the said office of inquisition, correcting, imprisoning, punishing and chastising, according to their deserts, those persons whom they shall find guilty as aforesaid. Its primary object was to safeguard the personal interests of the electors. Desiring with supreme ardor, as pastoral solicitude requires, that the catholic faith in our days everywhere grow and flourish as much as possible, and that all heretical depravity be put far from the territories of the faithful, we freely declare and anew decree this by which our pious desire may be fulfilled, and, all errors being rooted out by our toil as with the hoe of a wise laborer, zeal and devotion to this faith may take deeper hold on the hearts of the faithful themselves. At the same time by Letters Apostolic We require Our venerable Brother, the Bishop of Strasburg (Albrecht von Bayern, 1478-1506 – ed. Jh. Pope Innocent VIII. This papal bull, distributed by Innocent VIII in 1488, asserts the pope’s privilege of appointing the Master of the Spanish Order of St. James of Compostella, the pre-eminent pilgrimage site in Europe. Non obstantibus … Let no man therefore … But if any dare to do so, which God forbid, let him know that upon him will fall the wrath of Almighty God, and of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul. That pontiff was sent to St. Peter on July 25, 1492, and he was replaced by the infamous Rodrigo Borga, aka Pope Alexander VI. Innocent, bishop, servant of the servants of God, Ad futuram rei memoriam It has recently come to our ears, not without great pain to us, that in some parts of upper Germany, as well as in the provinces, cities, territories, regions, and dioceses of Mainz, Ko1n, Trier, Salzburg, and Bremen, many persons of both sexes, heedless of their own salvation and forsaking the catholic faith, give themselves over to devils male and female, and by their incantations, charms, and conjurings, and by other abominable superstitions and sortileges, offences, crimes, and misdeeds, ruin and cause to perish the offspring of women, the foal of animals, the products of the earth, the grapes of vines, and the fruits of trees, as well as men and women, cattle and flocks and herds and animals of every kind, vineyards also and orchards, meadows, pastures, harvests, grains and other fruits of the earth; that they afflict and torture with dire pains and anguish, both internal and external, these men, women, cattle, flocks, herds, and animals, and hinder men from begetting and women from conceiving, and prevent all consummation of marriage; that, moreover, they deny with sacrilegious lips the faith they . Innocent X was one of the most politically shrewd pontiffs of the era, greatly increasing the temporal power of … By Our supreme authority We grant them anew full and complete faculties. Historical document handwritten by the Papal Chancery, late 17th century. During what is known as the Little Ice Age, the grip of freezing weather, failing of crops, rising crime, and mass starvation resulted in an increasing fear of witches. He released King John from his oath to obey the charter. The choice fell on Cibò himself who, in honour of his countryman, Innocent IV, assumed the name of Innocent VIII. OUR holy fadre, the Pope Innocent the viij. At a meeting outside Dover, John placed England and Ireland under the lordship of Rome. received in holy baptism; and that, at the instigation of the enemy of mankind, they do not fear to commit and perpetrate many other abominable offences and crimes, at the risk of their own souls, to the insult of the divine majesty and to the pernicious example and scandal of multitudes. Get a Pr Ntr Kmt certificate as proof that your cannabis religion is real. Pope Innocent XII. He was succeeded by Pope Alexander IV (Rinaldo de' Conti). Wherefore in the provinces, cities, dioceses territories, and places aforesaid such offences and crimes, not without evident damage to their souls and risk of eternal salvation, go unpunished. 2021 The Malleus Maleficarum. The bull was printed in Rome by Eucharius Silber, and issued after November 17, 1487. Summis desiderantes affectibus (Latin for "desiring with supreme ardor"), sometimes abbreviated to Summis desiderantes was a papal bull regarding witchcraft issued by Pope Innocent VIII on 5 December 1484. Pamphili succeeded Pope Urban VIII (1623–44) on 15 September 1644 as Pope Innocent X, after a contentious papal conclave that featured a rivalry between French and Spanish factions. His election was manipulated by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere (later Pope Julius II), whose tool Innocent remained. After emptying the papal treasury in the service of failed wars in Italy, Innocent, on his deathbed, reportedly drinking the blood of three boys as a curative measure, begged his cardinals to elect a successor better than himself. This is a very incomplete list of papal bulls by the year in which they were issued. Sergius and Bacchus, in 1190. Pope Innocent VIII put Sprenger and Kramer in charge of seeking out and fighting people who supposedly in association with Satan to cause disease and pestilence, harm harvests and cattle, and perpetuate other heinous crimes. Innocent's learning gave to the world an Apparatus in quinque libros decretalium, a commentary on papal decrees. On the request of German inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, Innocent VIII issued the papal bull Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484), which supported Kramer's investigations against magicians and witches : "It has recently come to our ears, not without great pain to … en On December 5, 1484, Pope Innocent VIII issued a papal bull, or document, that condemned witchcraft. May 18, 2015 - During what is known as the Little Ice Age, the grip of freezing weather, failing of crops, rising crime, and mass starvation resulted in an increasing fear of witches. Named bishop of Savona, Italy, in 1467 by Pope Paul II, he was made cardinal in 1473 by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded. On the request of German inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, Innocent VIII issued the papal bull Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484), which supported Kramer’s investigations against magicians and witches: "It has recently come to our ears, not without great pain to us, that in … Papal bull on parchment, in good condition with original lead seal bearing the words "Innocentius Papa XII". Son of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent … church discipline reached another low; a group of cardinals traded with faked papal bulls. The Bull of Innocent VIII Innocent, Bishop, Servant of the servants of God, for an eternal remembrance. These web pages are not professional legal advice. Pope Innocent III. Innocent VIII August 29, 1484 - July 25, 1492 . However, he dealt mercilessly with a band of unscrupulous officials who forged and sold papal Bulls; capital punishment was meted out to two of the culprits in 1489. The papal bull of Pope Innocent VIII known as Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484). Eventually, the Knights handed Cem over to Pope Innocent VIII (1484–1492). Pope Innocent VIII and the witches - Stephen Morris, author During what is known as the Little Ice Age, the grip of freezing weather, failing of crops, rising crime, and … 533-6 (Kegan Paul). A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church. The fears which were raised in the beginning of his pontificate that he would yield to nepotism were entirely groundless. Pope Innocent VIII put Sprenger and Kramer in charge of seeking out and fighting people who supposedly in association with Satan to cause disease and pestilence, harm harvests and cattle, and perpetuate other heinous crimes. Birthplace: Naples, Italy Location of death: Rome, Italy Cause of death: unspecified. Pope Innocent III. In the 16th century the bulls could be marriage dispensations, excommunications and in the case of Gregory XIII in 1582, a calendar reform. King John had probably sent his envoys to Rome during the council which met at Oxford between 16 and 23 July 1215. List of papal bulls. These web pages are the personal opinion of Milo the Witch and do not necessarily reflect the views of MichaelM. DESIRING with the most hearfelt anxiety, even as Our Apostleship requires, that the Catholic faith should especially in this Our day increase and flourish everywhere, and that all heretical depravity should be driven far from the frontiers and bournes of the Faithful, We very gladly proclaim and even restate those particular means and methods whereby Our pious desire may obtain its wished effect, since when all errors are uprooted by Our diligent avocation as by the hoe of a provident husbandman, a zeal for, and the regular observance of, Our holy Faith will be all the more strongly impressed upon the hearts of the faithful. 1484 - Pope Innocent VIII marked the beginning of the classical European witch-hunts with his papal bull Summis desiderantes Summis desiderantes affectibus , ( Latin for Desiring with supreme ardor ), sometimes abbreviated to Summis desiderantes [1] [2] was a papal bull regarding witchcraft issued by Pope Innocent VIII on December 5, 1484. In response to the rapid spread of print technology, in November 1487 Pope Innocent VIII issued the first Papal Bull concerned with printing: Bulla S.D.N. Birthplace: Genoa, Italy Location of death: Rome, Italy Cause of death: unspecified. And although Our dear sons Henry Kramer and James Sprenger, Professors of Theology, of the Order of Friars Preachers, have been by Letters Apostolic delegated as Inquisitors of these heretical pravities, and still are Inquisitors, the first in the aforesaid parts of Northern Germany, wherein are included those aforesaid townships, districts, dioceses, and other specified localities, and the second in certain territories which lie along the borders of the Rhine, nevertheless not a few clerics and lay folk of those countries, seeking too curiously to know more than concerns them, since in the aforesaid delegatory letters there is no express and specific mention by name of these provinces, townships, dioceses, and districts, and further since the two delegates themselves and the abominations they are to encounter are not designated in detailed and particular fashion, these persons are not ashamed to contend with the most unblushing effrontery that these enormities are not practised in these provinces, and consequently the aforesaid Inquisitors have no legal right to exercise their powers of inquisition in the provinces, townships, dioceses, districts, and territories, which have been rehearsed, and that the Inquisitors may not proceed to punish, imprison, and penalize criminals convicted of the heinous offences and many wickednesses which have been set forth. The Lakers play it conservatively with Davis' adductor strain; KCP is . is said to have bought himself the papacy. Juli 1492. It is named after the leaden seal (bulla) that was . All Christians were required to assist the two Dominican monks, Jacob Sprenger and Heinrich Kramer, placed in charge of handling this supposed Witchcraft problem. Persons should seek the advice of qualified legal providers. The bulla acts as the signature of the pope. Up for auction is a scarce lead papal bulla (seal) of Innocent VIII, pope from 1484 to 1492. The manuscript on vellum concerns the rights of the Order, and was donated to Washington State College, U.S.A., by the Friends of the Library in 1951. In addition, Frederick II argued that since the papal bull was written without the knowledge and consent of the electoral princes, it was invalid. His success in the conclave, as well as his promotion to the cardinalate, was largely due to Giuliano della Rovere. Later he became Cardinal-Priest of St. Pudentiana. Pope Innocent VIII. So, in essence, Kramer had a Papal seal of approval. On the request of German inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, Innocent VIII issued … Continue reading → The decree explicitly declares that Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger have papal authority to lead inquisitorial procedures against suspected witches and other heretics in … Son of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent his early years at the Neapolitan court. On December 5th, 1484, Pope Innocent VIII issued an edict (Bull) entitled Summis desiderantes affectibus alleging that many men and women were in collusion with the Devil. Accordingly in the aforesaid provinces, townships, dioceses, and districts, the abominations and enormities in question remain unpunished not without open danger to the souls of many and peril of eternal damnation. If the twists and turns to produce a confession were not so tragic, they would constitute humor worthy of Kafka. Papal Bull annulling Magna Carta: There was an ongoing conflict between King John of England and Pope Innocent III over the election of the Archbishop of Canterbury, as the king had refused to recognize papal nominee, Stephen Langton. by Valérie Pirie < Prev T of C ... Plates Prelim. The executions of persons thought to be practicing witchcraft were increasing throughout western Europe. Pape Innocent VIII (Laitin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 Julie 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), wis Pape frae 29 August 1484 tae his daith in 1492. Moreover, they shall enjoy a full and perfect faculty of expounding and preaching the word of God to the faithful, so often as opportunity may offer and it may seem good to them, in each and every parish church of the said provinces, and they shall freely and lawfully perform any rites or execute any business which may appear advisable in the aforesaid cases. The three documents below include the Papal Bull of 1484, in which the pope provided his blessing and encouragement to witchhunting; an account of some beliefs about witches; and an extract from the Hammer of Witches describing the process of examination and trial. Fearing that he would be threatened with papal support for a French invasion of England, in 1213 King John made peace with representatives of Pope Innocent III (1161–1216). tl Noong Disyembre 5, 1484, inilabas ni Pope Innocent VIII ang isang utos na nagbabawal sa pangkukulam. Ch XVth Century XVIth Century XVIIth Century ... Next > Calixtus III Pius II Paul II Sixtus IV Innocent VIII Alexander VI. Aragonese Rodrigo Borja (Alexander VI.) Popes issued documents, known as papal bulls, in their administration of Church affairs. The choice fell on Cibò himself who, in honour of his countryman, Innocent IV, assumed the name of Innocent VIII. Year Bull Issuer Description; 1059: In Nomine Domini ("In the name of the Lord") Nicholas II: Establishing cardinal-bishops as the sole electors of the pope. Der Chronist Stefano Infessura berichtete in seinem Römischen Tagebuch, drei gesunde junge Männer seien von einem jüdischen Arzt ausgeblutet und ihr noch warmes Blut dem Papst zum Trank gereicht worden. And they shall also have full and entire liberty to propound and preach to the faithful word of God, as often as it shall seem to them fitting and proper, in each and all of the parosh churches in the said provinces, and to do all things necessary and suitable under the aforesaid circumstances, and likewise freely and fully to carry them out. If you spot an error in fact, grammar, syntax, or spelling, or a broken link, or have additional information, commentary, or constructive criticism, please e-mail Milo the Witch. After he assumed the pontificate in 1484, one of Innocent’s first official acts was the issuing of a bull condemning witchcraft. On December 5th, 1484, Pope Innocent VIII issued an edict (Bull) entitled Summis desiderantes affectibus alleging that many men and women were in collusion with the Devil. The papal conclave of 1484 was riven with faction, while gangs rioted in the streets. Given at Rome, at S. Peter’s, on the 9 December of the Year of the Incarnation of Our Lord one thousand four hundred and eighty-four, in the first year of Our Pontificate. Sergius and Bacchus, in 1190. Historically, he is the most politically powerful pope that ever lived, making this an especially fine item to have in this Collection.
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