For analysis responses were collapsed into three categories (None, 1 - 10hours and 11 - 20+). Given Facebook’s scale (over 2 billion active users globally and 236 mil… Of the students who completed the AUDIT questions (n = 1887), 38% (n = 717) reported that they consumed alcohol at hazardous levels (AUDIT score of ≥8). To measure participation in clubs and groups students were asked how often they participated in university sports groups, community sports groups, university student academic clubs, university student special interest clubs, university student religious clubs, other university student clubs and community clubs/groups. Approximately ninety percent of the sample classified themselves as Australian (n = 1709, 90.6%) and 178 (9.4%) identified as international students. The majority of the student sample (n = 1905; 87%), reported to have consumed alcohol in the past 12 months. 1. This scale consists of 16 items about information would be given out to the other. Previous research has identified social isolation as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems (e.g., Berkman, 1995; Cacioppo & Hawkley, 2003; Cacioppo, Hughes, Waite, Hawkley, & Thisted, 2006; House, 2001). Students who never participated in community sports were more likely to record low risk drinking compared to hazardous drinking (66.8% vs 33.2%). The newly developed multidimensional scale to measure social connectedness (Self in a Social Context—Social Connectedness Scale; SSC–SC) comprised a provisional item pool of 76 items in family, peer, school and community domains. This suggests that social connectedness may help us deal with the impact of specific traumatic events, such as a global pandemic or a terrorist attack (Butler et al., 2009), rather than simply being related to levels of distress in general. Table 3. Higher scores reflect a higher level of social connectedness[47] . Another Australian university study found 46.6% of 18 - 24 years old consumed alcohol at hazardous levels using the same binary analysis of low risk and hazardous AUDIT scores as this study [49] . The scale consisting of eight items is used to determine the subjective perception of how The majority of students had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months (87%). Males (42.5%) were more likely to participate in hazardous drinking compared to females (35.2%). While school, family and internal connectedness has been found to decrease tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use, connectedness to friends was found to increase substance use [61] . Secondly, our data cannot determine the nature of the association between distress and social connectedness. The scale was developed based on the theory of self-psychology and measures feelings of belongingness. The final questionnaire was tested for content and face validity [48] with an expert panel of health promotion and alcohol prevention experts (n = 7) and a purposive sample of the target group (n = 60). The 10 item AUDIT, which provides a measure of alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and alcohol related problems (Scores: 0 - 40) [39] was used to measure level of drinking. The high prevalence of hazardous alcohol consumption and mental health problems among university students along with the potential for the university as a setting for health promotion prompted this study. h�bbd```b``>"�A$�'��_ y&��HV}�JM0{�dYfg��`�,��4�d�U�"Uf�Ȕ�%$#�@l� 6�D����ma��L�� A$�1 ���FF.� �Ä���x�@� �+� Adolescents [4] , university students [58] and young adults who participate in organized sports, especially team sports [57] [58] are more likely to drink alcohol at more hazardous levels than their non-sporting peers. In Australia, males [4] and domestic students have been reported to be most at risk of consuming alcohol at harmful levels [4] [13] . Higher levels of social identity though affiliation with specific groups has found to be protective for mental health problems and to enhance life satisfaction [62] while others have suggested young people’s alcohol consumption may be associated with the group to which they are most affiliated [63] . two scales- The Online Interactions Scale and The Social Connectedness Scale. Students were asked how many hours they spent in paid work, attending university classes and doing personal study each week. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) measures the level of an individual’s distress, based on a five level response scale (Scores 10 to 50). When all factors were considered (Table 3) gender (p < 0.001), students’ living arrangements (p < 0.001), international student status (p < 0.001), hours spent at work (p < 0.001), participation in community sport (p < 0.001), the psychological distress (p < 0.001), and social connectedness (p = 0.001) were significant predictors of hazardous drinking, while participation in university sport (p < 0.05) was a moderately significant predictor of hazardous drinking. Highly and moderately significant differences were measured at p < 0.001 and p < 0.05 respectively. AUDIT has been widely used to measure drinking levels on a population basis [1] [5] [40] [41] . 2.1.2.2. Students who reported hazardous drinking reported: higher levels of social connectedness (M 39.09; SD 9.87); higher levels of psychological distress (M16.22; SD5.41); and higher social identity scores, indicating a low level of social identity (M6.92; SD2.13) (Table 2). Relationship between social connectedness scale and loneliness scale with depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms Higher loneliness scores had significant positive correlation with severity of depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms as assessed by … The majority of respondents lived with parent/s or guardian/s (n = 1418; 60.3%), followed by sharing a flat or residence (n = 590; 25.1%); living with a partner and/or children (n = 128; 5.4%), or living in student housing (n = 114; 4.9%). The onset of mental health issues is typically seen around the age at which young adults are completing higher education [17] . This study was based at the Collaboration for Evidence, Research and Impact in Public Health. 2.1.2.3. While positive associations between school connectedness and mental health have been found [59] social connectedness may increase some risky behaviors [60] . The connectedness to nature scale (CNS) is a measure of individuals' trait levels of feeling emotionally connected to the natural world in the realm of social and environmental psychology.The CNS was “designed to tap an individual’s affective, experiential connection to nature.” The concept of connectedness to nature signifies the relationship between an individual and the environment. These findings are consistent with previous research that highlights male and domestic students are at risk for hazardous consumption of alcohol [4] . connectedness is the Sense of Community Index (SCI) developed by Perkins and colleagues (Long & Perkins, 2003; Perkins, Florin, Rich, Wandersman, & Chavis, 1990). Similar to other studies, males in this study were more likely to report hazardous drinking than females (males 42.5% vs females 35.2%) [4] and when all predictors were considered gender was a significant factor in hazardous alcohol consumption. Commonly reported motivators for drinking among students can be categorized as social [8] , coping [9] and conformity motives [6] [10] . 2017a). 447 0 obj <>stream There was no significant difference between low risk and hazardous drinking and age, Faculty, years at university, hours spent completing personal study, and participation in university and community clubs. Moderate levels of depression and/or anxiety were reported by 7.6% (n = 149) of students. Scientific Research Students who participated in university sport once a month or more were more likely to report hazardous drinking (47.5%) compared to students who did not participate (35.9%). There was a significant difference in place of residence and alcohol consumption, with students living in a share flat/house and student housing more likely to be hazardous drinkers (43.3%; 48.9% respectively). The social connectedness scale includes eight items consist-ing of a six level rating system (1 = agree to 6 = disagree); measuring connected-ness (4 items), companionship (3 items) and affiliation (1 item). The authors acknowledge participants of this study who gave their time to complete the survey, the Curtin Office for Strategy and Planning and health promotion students for help in administering the survey. Hazardous drinking was similar for respondents who reported attending 1 - 10 hours (41.6%) and 11 - 20 hours (36.6%) of university classes. Students who did not participate in paid employment were more likely to report low risk drinking compared to hazardous levels of consumption (69.1% vs 30.9%). The majority of respondents in this study reported to consume alcohol at some level in the past twelve months (87%) which is consistent with previous university-based research which shows a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among young people [4] [49] [50] . Students who lived in a share house or student housing were more likely to consume alcohol at hazardous levels which is similar to a study from New Zealand that found students living in a residence hall or boarding house were more than twice as likely to report hazardous drinking as those living elsewhere [51] . Responses included: “none”, “1 - 5 hours”, “6 - 10 hours”, “11 - 20 hours” and “20+ hours”. When all factors were considered identifying as an international student was a significant predictor of low risk drinking. The Social Connectedness Scale was developed by Lee and Robbins (1995). Only 1.9% (n = 38) of students indicated they may be experiencing severe depression and/or anxiety. Of these students 38% reported to drink at hazardous levels (AUDIT ≥ 8). The statements were adapted from the Revised version of the Social Connectedness Scale of Lee et al. Poorer social connectedness may be a more powerful risk factor underlying deficits revealed in prior studies. Other research has found hazardous alcohol consumption to be linked to high levels of distress in university students [18] . ethnicity, class standing, and where they live) and the revised Social Connectedness Scale (SCS-R). The social identity scale uses a The questionnaire also included questions from two scales used in Psychology. 8 for social connectedness; 8 for social assurance Scale 6 point Likert scale Data collection format Self report Scoring key The items are added up for a total score – a higher score indicates more connectedness to others. There are a number of limitations to consider when interpreting the results of this study. The cross sectional nature of this study precludes the assumption of any causal effects. Quantitative data were collected from a random cross sectional sample of undergraduate students aged 18 to 24 years, enrolled at the main university campus. This study was interested in exploring the association between connectedness, social identify and alcohol consumption. Outcomes were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Social Connectedness Scale, Social Identity Scale and measures of paid employment and study (hours), and participation in sports and other clubs. Mashek, D., Stuewig, J., Furukawa, E., & Tangney, J. Social Connectedness Scale. Collaboration for Evidence, Research and Impact in Public Health, School of Public Health, Curtin University, This outcome is contradictory of a 2010 study that found greater earnings did not promote drinking, however the study did acknowledge that greater earnings could provide students with more money to spend on leisure activities, such as drinking [52] . Significant at p < 0.001*; significant at p < 0.05**. In recent work along these lines, we introduce a new measure of social connectedness between US county-pairs, as well as between US counties and foreign countries (Bailey et al. 411 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<887C066582851745AC2B52FD207151BE><4A87382C2991AF428A8FC09C57713231>]/Index[379 69]/Info 378 0 R/Length 143/Prev 318433/Root 380 0 R/Size 448/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Females were more likely to participate in the online questionnaire, however this is consistent with previous university studies [4] . Students were excluded from completing the face-to-face survey if they had completed the online survey. The dependent variable for the analysis was low risk (n ≤ 8) or hazardous (≥8) drinkers. Similarly, a study focusing on US and Canadian students (n = 71,860; n = 107 Institutions) found alcohol was one of the top ten factors affecting student’s mental health and academic performance [55] . This review studies technology-supported interventions to help older adults, living in situations of reduced mobility, overcome loneliness, and social isolation. UCLA Loneliness Scale The majority of students undertook 11 - 20+ hours of paid employment per week (48.2%, n = 909), attended 11 - 20+ hours of university classes (54.1%, n = 1020), and carried out 1 - 10 hours per week of personal study (73.6%, n = 1388). Thirty eight percent of the sample reported to drink at hazardous levels. Univariate and bivariate analysis was conducted. The SCS is assessed on a 6-point scale (1 = … The SCS-R 16 is comprised of 20 items The context of alcohol consumption, social connectedness and social identity is a pertinent issue for both the university and health practitioners [65] . For analysis responses were collapsed into two categories of “never” and “once a month or more”. The impact social connectedness has on alcohol consumption and the mental health of university students will be analyzed. The social identity scale uses a five level rating system (1 = very much to 5 = not applicable); higher social identity scores reflect a lower level social identity with the people around them [46] . Participants were randomly recruited using two different strategies: email invitation and intercept. Research assistants from the Collaboration for Evidence, Research and Impact in Public Health were recruited, completed a standardized one hour training session delivered by the project staff and subsequently administered the survey. Peers have been found to be a significant influence on alcohol consumption with homogeneity of behaviors being common [42] . Statistical significance and proportions were compared for categorical variables using Chi-Square analyses. (). (2006). The remainder lived alone (n = 46; 2%), boarded (n = 21; 0.8%) and had other arrangements, which consisted of living with siblings or home-stays (n = 33; 1.4%). Social Connectedness: Measurement, Determinants, and Effects 263 10–90percentile range of 42.5 to 67.4 percent; and over 70 percent of friends live within 200 … I like the direct way that this one item scale attached measures social connectedness directly and visually. The literature regarding social connectedness as a protective factor for health behaviors is not conclusive. (n = 556) indicated they may be experiencing mild levels of distress, mild depression and/or anxiety disorder. Online data were collected from a random sample of university undergraduate students (n = 2506) aged 18 - 24 years old. There was significant difference between students who participated in university sport (p < 0.001); and community sport (p < 0.001) and level of drinking. The university setting offers many opportunities for students to become connected with others [22] . Consistent with these findings, social identity, which refers to how someone identifies with the people and groups around them, at what level they feel they belong to that group and what value or importance they place on that group [34] has been identified as a predictor of intentions to binge drink, especially for those who strongly identify with the group [35] . The majority of the sample did not participate in university sports (82.0% n = 1548), university clubs (76.4% n = 1441), community sports (65.7% n = 1239) or community clubs (68.2%, n = 1287). The relevance of the pathways for individual and societal connectedness to nature, and their potential for application at deep leverage points (more on that later), is represented in Figure 2 which considers the location of connection/leverage points (X-axis) and scale of relevance (Y-axis) for the five types of relationship with nature found to be positive pathways to nature connectedness. 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